Category Archives: Arunachal Pradesh

Love Biriyani? Here’s one from every Indian State

Biriyani is one dish that needs no introduction. Although the earliest roots of Biriyani can be traced back to middle-east, Biriyani was brought to the Northern India by the Muslim rulers who largely settled there and the Arab merchants who came to the southern India for trade. Today, Biriyani is more of an emotion for every foodie. Hence, an essential part of Indian food culture. Anybody visiting India has one thing to strike off in their list of ‘To do in India- Eat Biriyani’. But, India is a country of diversity and in no way can the humble Biriyani be left behind without being different.

While Biriyani is a very generic moniker for this spicy, aromatic and delicious preparation of rice, it comes in various forms. These forms are born out of the local influences of available ingredients, regional cuisine, rice variety and flavor preferred. There are mainly 2 types of making it: Kucchi (Raw marinated meat is cooked together between layers of raw rice) and Pakki (Meat and rice are separately cooked with all the spices and served together). While Biriyani is predominantly a non-vegetarian dish, it has been over time tuned for the vegetarian masses. Some versions are named after the place it originated from and some are synonymous with certain families or shops that created the variants.

So, while you enjoy exploring India, here is something for you to try out at each of the 29 states of this huge country- Biriyani.

PLEASE NOTE: There are a few states in India where I have not yet visited and hence do not have sufficient information about the local Biriyani flavours. It will be greatly appreciated if you can help me fill up these empty spaces by dropping your suggestions in the comments below.

  1. Andhra Pradesh– Doodh ki Biriyani is something that stands out from the rest of the list in flavor and colour. Here, the meat and the rice are cooked together in milk instead of water. Vegetarians can drool over Avakaya Biriyani. This is made by mixing a raw mango and mustard oil pickle with steamed basmati rice.
  2. Arunachal Pradesh(**Need help)
  3. Assam– Kampuri biriyani is a delightful recipe that has originated in a place called Kampur in this north-eastern state.
  4. Bihar– Champaran is a culturally important region in the country that also gives its name to the popular non-vegetarian dish of the state. The flavours of Champaran mutton or Ahuna mutton goes well great in our list. What makes its preparation stand out is the usage of black pepper corns, desicated coconut and whole bulbs of garlic cooked along with the meat. The garlic pulp is then squeezed into the preparation.
  5. Chattisgarh(**Need help)
  6. Goa– With a large number of influences from the erstwhile Muslims, Portuguese and the Saraswata Bramins of Konkan, Goan traditional food is an amalgamation of many cuisines. The Goan fish biriyani is a must try (the fish used may differ) which derives its flavour from coconut and red kokum. It is light on spices.
  7. Gujarat– In a state where vegetarianism is largely preferred, Memoni biriyani comes as a surprise for mutton lovers. It has its origin from Sindh, the region in Pakistan with whom the state shares its border.
  8. Haryana– Although, this state doesn’t have a biriyani it reckons itself with, its long association with the capital city, Delhi can be spoken about. Delhi Biriyani itself has so many versions depending on the part of the city it originated in and the purpose it was created for. Nizammuddin biriyani, Shahajanabad biriyani are a few to name. There is yet another twist to it in the form of the Achaari biriyani. Here, rice is mixed with pickles (Achaar in Hindi). Karim’s biriyani is served from a kitchen that dates back to the mughals (contributed by trippin_on_life).
  9. Himachal(**Need help)
  10. Jammu & Kashmir– Its large association with the Muslim rulers has lead into the creation of the Kashmiri Biriyani (non-veg) or the Kashmiri Pulav (vegetarian dish). Mutanjan biriyani is a dish that stands out in the entire list as it is a sweet form of the otherwise spicy biryani.
  11. Jharkand(**Need help)
  12. Karnataka– Susprisingly, my homestate has all the influences. The Northern part of the state is known for the Kalyani biriyani that was created by the Nawabs of Kalyani who ruled the areas around Bidar district. This is a delicacy cooked with buffalo meat. The coastal part of the state has its influence from the middle-eastern traders who eventually invented the local forms. Beary biriyani is named after the coastal trading community and Bhatkali biriyani with its taste influenced by the Navayath cuisine.
  13. Kerala– The Northern Kerala (Malabar region) is known for its Thalassery biriyani and Kozhikodan biriyani, the middle part of the state has its lesser known dish called Rawther biriyani, created by the Rawther family who lived around the Palakkad area. The Kuzhimanthi biriyani, a form of Yemeni rice is slowly catching up with the locals in and around Cochin. All variants have been largely influenced by the immigrants and traders from the middle-east. Vegetarians, don’t worry. You can dig into delicious plates of Kappa biriyani (tapioca) and puttu biriyani.
  14. Madhya Pradesh– Although this state does not have its own biriyani form, Tehari biriyani is prepared all over northern India. It is the vegetarian version of the Mughlai biriyani which goes by different stories of its origin.
  15. Maharastra– While the Mughals have influenced the spicy Aurangabad biriyani, the Bombay Biriyani is a world apart with its tangy and sweet taste derived from the kewra, potatoes and plums used in its preparation. The Bohri patra biriyani, a name derived in combination of two words- Bohra (the sect who created this recipe) and patra (leaves of colocassia) is a hidden secret of Mumbai.
  16. Manipur(**Need help)
  17. Meghalaya– Although this state doesn’t have a dish called ‘biriyani’ on its menu of khasi cuisine, Jadoh is a dish that’s very close. It is a spicy preparation of rice cooked either with pork or chicken. What sets it apart is that all its ingredients are cooked with the respective animal blood (pork or chicken) instead of water.
  18. Mizoram(**Need help)
  19. Nagaland(**Need help)
  20. Odisha– while there is nothing specifically called the Odiya biriyani, what comes close is the Cuttacki Biriyani, created by a restaurant in cuttack. With the flavours largely derived out of Bengali influence, the ingredients are cooked in Rose water.
  21. Punjab– Punjab doesn’t have its own biriyani recipe. Its proximity to the Pakistan borders gets it the Sindhi biriyani and the Bohri biriyani.
  22. Rajasthan-Jodhpuri Kabuli is a vegetarian recipe deriving its name from the city of Jodhpur in Rajastan and Kabul in Afghanistan. Mewa biriyani is another local taste that’s slightly sweet and garnished with nuts and dehydrated fruits.
  23. Sikkim(**Need help)
  24. Tamil Nadu– While the Nawabs of Arkot influenced the famous Ambur / Vaniyambadi biriyani; the thalapakkatti family created the Dindigul biriyani and the business community of Chettiars brought in their knowledge of spices giving form to the Chettinad biriyani.
  25. Telangana– Hyderabadi Biriyani needs no description. Available in both the kacchi and pakki forms, it was patronized largely during the nawabs of Hyderabad.
  26. Tripura– Although not a native dish, it can still be recognized with chevon biryani due to its proximity to Bangladesh. The chevon biriyani or Dhaka biriyani is the Bangladeshi twist to this incredible rice preparation.
  27. Uttar Pradesh– Influenced by the Awadhi cuisine, the Lucknowi biriyani is flavourful and a burst of cinnamon to your tastebuds. Its lesser known relative is the Moradabadi biriyani.
  28. Uttarakhand(**Need help)
  29. West Bengal– Last on the list, but one of the most popular forms in the country is the Kolkata biriyani. With potato as it’s key ingredient, this preparation of subtle flavours is influenced by the Awadhi cuisine.

A valley beyond music and the tribes- Ziro

Before I take you through this journey, it is required to know that Ziro is the name of an entire area. It is a valley located in the Lower Subansiri district and surrounded with mountains 360deg.

After a long and tedious drive up the hill, we had finally reached the top of Ziro valley. We were in our shorts and loafers shivering with cold at a temperature of 2 deg C. When we reached Hapoli at 12.30.a.m. There, we met the caretaker of the homestay we had booked who had come down to pick us to his home located in Siiro, a further drive up. After reaching his place, I couldn’t help but jump into the cozy bed that was set up in this traditional house with bamboo interiors and wrapped myself with the warm fluffy blankets. I crashed!

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The interior of our homestay at Siiro

The next morning was an interesting day. We visited the fish farm at Tarin. The Ngihi variety of fish is cultured in tanks that are placed well amid the pine trees in a beautiful location that you reach after a very scenic drive. Ziro is the only place in India where this species of high altitude fishes are grown and that too as an inter-crop in paddy fields. That means the fishes grow in the same marsh as the paddy thereby mutually supporting each other. September would be the ideal month to see the green aquaculture farms that sets a beautiful backdrop for the popular Ziro music festival in this hill station.

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The fish farm at Tarin

I must say that there are no roads in Ziro and you just randomly drive. So we drove amid some scenic stretches and parked our car at the end of an eddy path. From there, we trekked up a small path inside the Kardo hills to reach the Sri Siddeshwar Nath Temple. Lord Shiva is believed to be residing here with his entire family in the form of a 20+ feet high self-manifested idol. We were introduced to Lord Shiva, Parvathi, Karthikeyan, Ganesha and even his little mouse in this remote location filled with just silence and the smell of burning incense. We walked a little further which happens to be the only place in India where kiwi fruits are grown. This fact came as a rather surprise to us who are so used to seeing the New-zealand seal on kiwi packs almost always. I picked up a kilo of these home-grown fruits at the price of what I would generally pay for one fruit at the supermarkets.

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Shiva temple at Kardo

We then, wandered around the Hapoli market which was altogether an experience in itself! Clothes, shoes, thermals, utensils, vegetables (that are mostly local), local sweets and confectionaries – everything was sold under the same roof. Bunches of bhoot-Jhalokias (the hottest chillies in the world) were sold in abundance. And then we reached this section of the market where we went berserk… Trust me! Rats, moths, honeybee larvae, silkworms, roaches were all there- up for sale. Rats were fancy. These rodents were sold in their farm fresh or dried & seasoned form. A dozen of them tied by their tails were handed over to the person next to me as if the tattooed shopkeeper was giving him a bunch of litchis. Although I couldn’t gather enough courage to try these rodents, I carried a handful of silkworms to be cooked back at the homestay for dinner.

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The chillies and dried rats at the Hapoli market

From there, we drove to Putu (Hill-top) to catch the sunset. This is the top-most point in Ziro and you can see the entire town from here and the hill that surrounds it all around. The Ziro airport runway cuts right through the several Apathani tribal hamlets that lay scattered all over as seen from the top. We stayed there for some time enjoying the 360deg view and the cool breeze before heading back to Siiro.

We requested our homestay caretaker to serve us some local and traditional meal for the night. So, he enquired us if we would like to visit an Apathani tribal home over for dinner. What better than eating with an Apathani family in the land of the Apathanis! Without a second thought, we all jumped up and said “YES” in unison! We drove past several bamboo groves, pine forests and finally alighted at Hong village- A village full of the Apathani inhabitants. It was a sudden shift in the environment with almost all structures being only of bamboo. We were greeted at the village entrance by the carols and guitars at the church (That also was a traditional Apathani bamboo structure with fireplace in the center of the room). Although we couldn’t understand the lyrics, we were still lost in the magic of the native music. We waited there until the mass was over and visited the family that was waiting for our visit.

We were hosted by a warm welcome by all the members of the family where the eldest women of the family handed over bamboo mugs with the local brew of rice beer- Apong. The construction of these houses are very simple. A large room with a central fireplace. Given the extreme cold temperatures of the place, almost all activities of a normal house are in this room since the fire keeps everything warm. The room has bamboo chairs in the living area, cots with beds on the other end for sleeping purposes, food will be cooked right there and food grains & meat hung right above it for drying, a small water outlet to be used as a wash-basin that gets drained down the hut that is situated slightly above the ground. The washrooms are however located on the backside of the huts separately. Then we were served with a sumptuous Apathani meal with rice, with chicken cooked inside hollow bamboo placed inside the burning firewood, Teak flower & shredded pork curry, Pika pila- a pickle made with bamboo shoot and pork fat and made to taste with Tapyo- the salt made by burning the local herbs without any water ( not from the sea!). Bliss… Just as we thought we couldn’t ask for more, the friendly family invited us over to stay with them for the night! Hearing that, our joy knew no bounds! We were excited and went back to the homestay to get our luggage for the night!

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The bamboo mugs that are used to serve rice beer

We spent the next morning photographing the village, discussing about the Apathani traditions, feeding the domesticated pigs and relaxing in this place that was so cut-off from the rest of the world. We were served a simple sweetened rice with boiled eggs for breakfast after which we got busy chatting with the local folk. So, Apathanis are known world-over for their unique tradition of wearing huge nose studs with women folk having tattoos across their faces. The culture of drawing permanent face tattoos was practiced back then to avoid men from neighbouring villages from abducting the girls of Apathani tribe who were considered to be very beautiful (indeed they are!). However, the younger generations of the tribe are against this practice in modern days who often get bullied in the cities/towns for the weird designs on the faces. It is sad that the so-called cultured people in the urban areas fail to recognize the line between tradition, culture and style! Although I have photos of the folk who had been so welcoming towards us, I will not post any of them here as a mark of respect for them as they don’t like the exploitation the photos undergo in the electronic media.

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The village post office at Hong

That is all the time we had in this beautiful village until next time. If you intend to spend a few more days in this valley, then you could plan short treks to places like Dilopolyang Maniipolyang- the twin hillocks; Dolo Mando hill; Middey- the place of the largest pine tree of the valley; Kile Pakho ridge; Meghna cave temple; the orchid research centre etc. where you will be treated with spectacular views of the valley. You can also include a drive of 30kms to the Talley Valley national park in your itinerary to spot the illusive clouded leopard if you have an additional day to spend. However, it was farewell to Ziro, its incredible natural beauty and the wonderful people, until next time!

We drove down the valley with company of two Apathani women seated in our rear seat until half way (thanks to the poor connectivity of the place) and the serene river flowing down on our left side all the way down!

Summary:

Must do: Stay with an Apathani family, enjoy the Ziro music festival, spot a Mithun (a cattle breed endemic to this region), shop groceries at the Hapoli market

Must see: The aquaculture in paddy fields.

Endurance testing of a car- A road trip across Assam

I have been involved in testing of new cars that belonged to my company. But, all that are with SOPs and defined patterns. This time, it was about driving a competitor in the extreme road conditions just for the joy of driving and fun of travelling. No SOPs and we were our own bosses… The India unique driving conditions… With money spent from our own pockets… So this is what it was all about.

Part 1: We meet our new friend from the showroom- Maruthi Swift Petrol
The car was delivered from the showroom just 30 minutes before our arrival. It had the ribbon on its hood and a TC plate for registration indicating us that we were the first people to drive it. After all the formalities, the experimental trip kicked off in a traditional Indian way- Getting ourselves photographed in front of our brand new car with the self-drive company owner handing over the keys to us. The road ahead is supposedly beautiful with greenery all the way with paddy fields, hills and tea plantations. It was past sunset and hence, it was just a cruise from Guwahati to Kaziranga highway. We checked into the resort by 10.00.p.m which we had booked at Kohra range of Kaziranga National park.

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The National Highway passing through Kazhiranga

The next morning, we drove through the rustic areas of Kohra to reach the elephant Safari area. It was a splendid view with lush green paddy fields hovered over with mist and mud smeared huts dotting the entire stretch which set a positive tone for the day. We even spotted a couple of rhinos by the roadside itself 😀 An elaborate story of Kaziranga is another post altogether and hence, I will drive you across from here to reach Neemati ghat as the last ferry would leave for Majuli by 04.00.p.m. The car too sped similar to the drive you’ve just been through the post from Kohra to Neemati ghat- HIGH SPEED! Majuli is yet another post in my blog and that comes with Diwali lights, fireworks and a lot of pulling and pushing of the car in the dusty terrain of the countryside. A drive to be truly remembered!

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The kaccha roads of Majuli

Part 2: Driving on the National Highway no.13- A sneak-peak to Arunachal Pradesh
It was complete off-road driving (Read it flying) all along the banks of Brahmaputra from Dhunaguri Ghat of Assam. We had covered a stretch of 165 kms/4hrs via North-Lakhimpur in merely an hour through a shortcut via Parbatipur. We had met a cop from Arunachal Pradesh who had asked us to follow him and we did that although skeptical about his real motives 😛 We heaved a sigh only when we saw some people around and that’s when we realized we were right in front of Arunachal gate at Banderdewa check post. Having sorted out the issues of inner-line permits for us and our swift car with no number plate (We had a temporary registration), a grueling drive into the state of Arunachal had begun along NH.13. It was pitch dark at 6.p.m. in the evening and not a soul on the road san us. We braved a couple of landslides and waterfalls- both plunging right onto the road that we were driving through. It was 12.00.a.m. when we reached Hapoli market in Ziro town of the lower Subansiri district. The three of us were trying to get in touch with the homestay owner for directions from 5 different mobile network providers and yet unable to make a call. All the mobile phone networks were apparently down since evening and felt like the entire valley was paralyzed without communication. And, we were kind of stranded in the middle of a freaking cold night at nowhere!!

There were no civilians on the road but hundreds of cops walking around with balaclava and guns keeping vigil in the place prone to surprise social turbulence. Meanwhile, we were confronted by a CRPF cop as to what we were doing there at that time and we explained our plight to him and sought help. He offered to help us telling BSNL lines were up and he could call our homestay from his mobile- unfortunately, our homestay guy was still not reachable, thanks to his Airtel connection! By that time, we had decided to spend the night on the road with our shorts and loafers to help us bare the zero temperature at Ziro town. But in a while’s time, a miracle happened. Our homestay owner had realized the issue with the mobile networks and come down to Ziro searching for us. He found us! But rightly then, his Maruthi 800 refused to crank… He pushed it aside until next morning, got into our car and took us to safe harbor- his homestay at Siiro!

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The National Highway at Ziro

After all the sightseeing and lifetime experiences at Ziro, we had to now drive back to our next destination- Jatinga. It was the same highway down until Banderdewa, but this time during daytime. So we had ample vistas to soothe our eyes all the way… Deep valley with clear waters and occasional rapids of the Subansiri on one side and thick jungle on the other kept up the motivation for the drive on that Roadless NH road! Occasional Apathani women folk hitch hiking a drop to different villages enroute to Potan and frequent photo stops added to the tempo. Further down, while the sunset added colour, the grazing Mithuns along the valley added charm to the drive. Mithuns are shy animals belonging to the cattle family. They resemble bisons from Nagarhole in their features but are in shades of white colour. They are handsome creatures! In such bad tarmac, we were still able to keep the good condition of our new car with just the rear mudguards hanging down. We crossed the Banderdewa by 06.00.p.m. and thus the next sojourn into Assam happened.

Part 3: Driving on the Asian Highway no.1 to Haflong.
After a short tea break and for dinner, we drove until Tezpur where we decided to stay for the night. After seeing no roads in Arunachal, the new tarmac in Assam seemed more like a speedway in NFS. We were cruising through the NH passes over the 3kms+ long Kolia Bhomora Bridge across the Brahmaputra and cuts through tea plantations and paddy fields in most stretch and was a delight to drive. But, we were watchful at the same time as the beautiful stretch was also known for anti-social elements like militants, Maoists etc. The next morning, we started early towards Dima Hasao district so that we had sufficient time to explore Haflong and make it to Jatinga to watch the famous birds’ mass suicide phenomenon. We were blindly following our dear friend- google maps and cruising on the AH, that is being newly developed in the stretch that we were supposed to drive till Haflong. We were thoroughly enjoying our drive through the newly asphalted 4-lane road passing through the forest reserve area. However, we did not want to risk ourselves by stopping anywhere even for a nature’s call as the entire stretch is known to be socially intolerant and infested with militants. It was only us and no one else amid virgin forests on both sides for as long as our eyes could reach. The map was indicating only ONE road right until Haflong without any crossroads and hence, it was an easy way to go…

We had just passed through the tunnel near Mahur junction and suddenly the road disappeared. The front wheels of our car were stuck inside a deep pool of slush. It was 01.00.p.m. and our enjoyable drive had halted. The map on all our phones continued to indicate the road ahead. We opened the doors to get out and push the car- we were amused by the knee deep water that we had just got ourselves into. There was a huge rock exactly under the front cross-bar which meant we couldn’t push it forward. Meanwhile, we noticed that the water level was rising due to a continuously flowing stream which posed a risk of the water entering the engine. While 2 of us took to task of digging a water-way for the stream to flow out, the other friend walked back until the tunnel where we hoped to find some help. There were a couple of cars who had lost their way too and drove to the place where we were stuck, but they were quick enough to shift to the reverse gear and drive back. Remember… The place is infested with militants?? Our poor friend near the tunnel- was trying to stop every single vehicle that passed by and no one cared! By 03.00.p.m. he somehow managed to walk back with 3 local boys who came down with a couple of posts to lift the car out of the slush. The ground clearance was bad which at the first place had got us down to where we were. The front bumper seemed fragile to come out if we tried to lift up with it. There were no side skirts or reinforcements that could help us to hold the car up. And then there was a huge dent & a bump on the Rear door while my friend was trying to support his shoulder in between. We together tried all possible tricks and ideas to get the car out but all in vain. The sun had begun to set by then which meant we had very little time left with daylight lest spend the night inside the car in the middle of nowhere with highest possibility of getting mugged at gunpoint and worse- become a meal to some hungry wild animal. It was 04.00.p.m. and we were still stranded.

While we had given up and were thinking about the way forward, a Mizoram bound family arrived in a XUV-500. Seeing a girl, they took pity on us and offered to help us by waiting until we arranged for a rope. Fortunately, another truck arrived on a lost route within the next 10 minutes. The truck driver obliged to open a compartment in his truck which was located deep under and was never touched since the time he had owned the truck. He finally pulled out a big chain which was then attached to the XUV and towed the swift out of the ditch. It was a moment of celebration… not only to us, but to so many people who had gathered during the course. With some navigation help from the locals, we took a small deviation to avoid the landslide that had actually caused the entire episode of getting our car towed. The highway ahead right until Jatinga was under construction with just heavy dust all around. There was a spot where our car was in the middle of like ten JCBs around- Like a scene from the transformers. Wow! A wonderful experience in a no-man’s world…

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The Asian Highway through Dima Hasao

Part 4: Swift gets a face wash
We found a local garage at Haflong who vacuum cleaned the interiors and did a high pressure wash for the exteriors and underbody. Our car looked as new as it was when we took delivery. Only change point was that it had a big bump on the rear door and functionally, the power steering would suddenly get harder than its manual version due to the leaking power steering oil, the brakes took a longer distance to stop and the entire electrical system would suddenly go off during the drive due to the excessive electrolyte spillage in the battery and of course- the wheel alignment had gone for a complete toss. We drove back to Guwahati braving the deadly combination of multiple malfunction Indication Lamps on and horrible road sense of the people on the newly laid highways. We returned the car at Guwahati and the rest is better left untold…

Summary: Sorry for the poor car on it’s first road-trip.. It was driven in extreme conditions for what it is not designed.. Inspite of all that we put it through, it got us back safe to our harbour:)

What was your most memorable road-trip? Let me know!