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A colourful heritage of Indian paintings- a list from all Indian states

Art is an integral part of human life. Paintings are yet another form of expressing imaginations. The history of paintings in India dates to pre-historic times where there are several rock and cave paintings scattered across the sub-continent. Painted pottery on terracotta and ceramic too have been excavated at several sites. Eventually, it became an attempt to bring the storytelling of the Indian epics to a visual form, each one using the material available locally for colour and canvas. Some forms were patronized by the kingdoms that ruled India and yet a few, used by the local tribes to decorate their dwellings. The use of natural colours on naturally available surfaces has evolved with the generations, picking up influences from various events, people along the way.

This is the land of great artists like Nainsukh, Raja Ravi Varma. Bright and rich colours are now an inseparable part of vibrant culture and lifestyle of being Indian. Here is my attempt to enlist the traditional and folk paintings from all the states of India that can help you as a ready reckoner while you are out travelling in this beautiful land. A few, I would like to crowdsource the details wherever I failed.

These paintings can be strategically used in our daily life that will help revive, sustain and promote these ancient art and rural economy.

Andhra Pradesh:
a). Deccani paintings- are miniatures which predominantly feature palm trees, men & women. The art has a significant influence by the Deccan sultanates who ruled around this area.
b). Nirmal art- is where the artisans have developed their own canvas using cardboard and luppam. The striking designs in the form of creepers, flowers etc. have evolved on furniture today.
c). Savara paintings- This wall art is practiced by the Savaras tribe around Vishakhapatnam. The wall is readied with a mixture of red soil and paper. The painting is done with brush prepared by chewing tender bamboo into various thickness. White colour is derived from rice powder and black colour is derived with a mixture of coconut ash & castor oil.
d). Kalamkari- This is a fabric painting form popular in the rural parts around Machilipatnam. Primarily human faces are block printed using vegetable colours.
e). Tholu Bommalaata- This is an art of making leather puppets that are hand painted using vegetable colours, mainly found in the region around Adilabad.

Arunachal Pradesh:
Kuthang strolls- These are intricate religious paintings of the Buddhists. These are derived from the Tangkha paintings that are auspicious symbols hung in every monastery and houses.

Assam:
a). Khanikar art- These are religious paintings that adorn the monasteries & Satras around the state.
b). Assamese silk scrolls- Traditional colours of Hangool & Haital are used to draw representations from Ramayana and Mahabharata on silk strolls. This is practiced in the upper Assam region.

Bihar:
a). Mithila or Madhubani- These are originally intricate wall paintings that depict Ramayana & Mahabharata adorning walls across the rural parts of Mithila region and have now become synonymous with the state.
b). Patna Kalam- this is also another art form largely patronised during the Gupta era. Several paintings have been found in the Nalanda excavations.

Chhattisgarh:
Godna- This is a primitive art form that has been largely in practice as body tattoos by the women folk in the Jamgula and Bastar region. It has found acceptance in the form of motifs on textile with natural colours mixed with acrylic paints.

Goa:
Kaavi mural paintings- is largely popular in the Konkan region. As the colour says, Kaavi is a single colour- red pigment derived from laterite soil. Several structures, churches and temples are coloured with red paint on a white background.

Gujarat: This state is sort of a mélange with vibrant colours used across a range of art forms.
a). Pithora- These are wall paintings practiced by the Rathwa & Bhilala tribes
b). Miniature paintings- This art has been used to depict epics and large stories under the Jain patronage in 11th century.
c). Glass painting- It is believed that the earliest form of painting on glass (Belgium glass) originated in Gujarat.
d). Kalampari art- This is a fabric painting technique practiced by the Chitara community.
With many tribal communities living around the Kutch area, each tribe have their own unique art, patterns and colourations used in their daily life like walls, huts, attire, jewellery, pottery etc. It is an endless list but here are some of them from the Rann of Kutch.
e). Rogan painting
f). Terracotta paintings like Kavda pottery is believed to have techniques dating back to the Indus Valley civilization.

Haryana:
This is probably the only Indian state that doesn’t have a native art form. With several dynasties and rulers who came and went in this region, there has never been any specific art style that found patrons among who were always busy in fighting battles.

Himachal Pradesh:
Kangra & Chamba miniature painting- Although largely spread across all the Himalayan states and largely coming under the Pahari paintings umbrella, the region of Kangra gave its name to the paintings that was largely promoted and patronised by the Rajputs. However, each ruler gave the art form its own twist and called it a different name.

Jammu & Kashmir:
Basohli miniatures- Again a part of the Pahari painting, the famous artist Nainsukh is believed to have moved from Chamba and have settled in this region during his last days. Thus, giving its name to the bold and intense form of painting the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Hence, Basohli is the first school of Pahari paintings.

Jharkhand:
a). Paitkar scrolls- Ramayana & Mahabharata stories are depicted on paper with colour made from vermillion. Fine brush is made using goat hair.
b). Jadopatia scrolls- This form of paintings is used for story telling which are believed to have healing effects on people.
c). Sohrai, Kohver, Ganju, Rana, Teli, Prajapati, Kurmi, Mundas, Turi, Birhor & Bhuiya, Ghatwal- these are mural paintings used to decorate the walls of the tribal houses. Each, representing a tribe and have their own style. The common factor between all these styles are that the designs comprise of animals & plants depictions thus indicating the connection of nature and the tribe.

Karnataka:
Mysore Royal painting- influenced by the Vijayanagar school of painting, this art flourished under the Mysore Wodeyars. Bright natural colours obtained from vegetables, organic, minerals were painted using natural brushes. Squirrel hair was used for finer strokes and brushes made with a specific grass was used for various thickness and strokes.

Kerala:
a). Kalam- This is a short name for Kalamezhuthu, a rural art of painting.
b). Face painting- with various traditional dance forms and ritualistic prayers, face painting is an essential part of art in Kerala. Largely seen in its vibrant designs and patterns during Theyyams, Kathakali etc.
c). Oil paintings- These murals are very elaborate piece of portraits largely practiced in the Northern part of Kerala.

Madhya Pradesh:
a). Gond art- A painting style that is used by the Gond tribes. This largely comprises of finely drawn lines in a picture that encompasses animals and plants.
b). Pithora wall paintings- this form of art is inspired by various myths and is used by the Bhilala tribe to keep away evils. You can often see walls and both sides of the doors painted with patterns that are believed to protect them.
c). Malwa painting- This folk art can be found on floors and walls and practiced by the Chitera community. Chalk powder blended with turmeric & saffron for suitable shades of the colour is used in doing these paintings.
Mandana paintings- This art is used to depict special occasions and festivals and used only during specific events.

Maharashtra:
a). Warli- Used to adorn walls by the tribe, this painting uses patterns like triangles and circles to represent community living, human being, trees, animals and everything in general.
b). Chitrakathi paper paintings- as the name suggests, Chitra (picture) + Katha (story)- These are single sheet paintings used by a specific migrating community of Thakkar tribe for storytelling. Local version of Ramayana & Mahabharata and other myths are painted using colours made from stones. These are also called as Paithani paintings.

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Compliments cards for gifts with Warli art

Manipur:
**Need help**

Meghalaya:
**Need help**

Mizoram:
**Need help**

Nagaland:
Naga cloth painting- Several Naga tribes reside in Nagaland and each have their own designs in their houses, dresses and morungs. However, the Lotha, Ao and Rengma tribes have their traditional designs painted on fabric. Fine bamboo brushes are used to transfer colours that are made by mixing tree sap, leaf ash and local beer.

Odisha:
Patachitra- These are traditional cloth-based scroll painting from rural parts of eastern Odisha. It is inspired by Mythic elements like Lord Jagannath and is derived from ancient Bengali art which is used for narration in the visual form when a song is performed.

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A Patachitra scroll based envelope- for giving wedding compliments

Punjab:
Sikh miniature painting- This an influence of the Kangra paintings and is used as a narrative of various stories from the life of Guru Nanak. Hence, has a vital role in Sikhism.

Rajasthan: The list of painting related art forms from this state is endless. Here is a small compilation of the same.
a). Phad cloth scrolls- These paintings are based on stories from Ramayana & Mahabharata. They have influences of both religious and folk performances by the local priests.
b). Rajasthani miniature paintings- When the Mughal artisans dispersed from the Northern India, they were sheltered and patronised by various Rajput kings. Individual ruler had his influence on the style, and it evolved into individual styles, largely coming under a common umbrella called as Rajasthani school of paintings.
c). Wall & ground paintings- Various styles like Devra, Pathwari, Sanjhi, Mandav etc. can be seen based on the individual communities.
d). Cloth paintings- like Pat, Picchwai, Phad scrolls etc.
e).Paane paper paintings.
f). Kavad wooden paintings.
g). Body paintings- various designs are drawn on human skin using natural colours like Mehndi & Godana
h). Thape paintings- This is a wall & door painting style that is used to invoke deities. Natural colours like turmeric, henna, vermillion is used.
i). Badaley paintings- These are either cloth or leather paintings that are used to cover metal utensils. It is prominent around Jodhpur.
j). Thewa art- This is a form of painting small pieces of glass with gold. It is a famous art around Pratapgarh in Bhilwara region.

Sikkim:
Thangka painting- These are religious strolls that depict important lessons from Buddhism. This uses organic colours and even gold dust and adorns walls, roof and mural in Buddhist houses and monasteries.

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Envelopes with compliments & paintings from Buddhism

Tamil Nadu:
Tanjavur paintings- This is a classical art form that has a 3-D effect with embellished with precious stones, glass pieces & pearls. It has been largely patronized by the Cholas and then have influences from the Marathas and others who ruled the region.

Telangana:
Cherial scroll painting- This is a folk art on very long cloths used for story telling that can sometimes run into several meters. It is painted specifically by the Kako Padagollu community.

Tripura:
**Need help**

Uttar Pradesh:
Mughal/ Persian painting style- The Mughals got artisans from Persia and used their designs and patterns in all their structures across. Art flourished especially during the reign of Jehangir.

Uttarakhand:
Garhwal painting- Again, something that has been a part of the Pahari school, this form largely uses characters that depict romance.

West Bengal:
a). Patua art- This is a traditional narrative paper scroll painting style done by a community called the Patuas. The speciality of the art is its people who are mainly Muslim and paint Hindu religious figures in their artwork.
b). Kalighat painting- This started as paintings in items that were taken as offerings to Kali temple at Kalighat and has now become a specific form of painting.

And how not to forget the wonderful patterns in bright colours adorning the front yards of all Indian homes? Rangoli as it is commonly called, this art is called with different names depending on the region you are in. But is a representation of the artist that dwells in every Indian household.

A piazza of paintings- ChitraSanthe

It has been a while since I did the local rounds as I have been tad busy on weekends with lot of get-togethers with family and friends. So to start the year 2017, I did not think twice to go solo shopping in the market. Typically, the one stop campo where all villagers come-together to trade grains, vegetables, cattle, clothes etc. is called a ‘Santhe’ in Kannada. But this was a unique market that sold only paintings (Chithra) of various artists who gather from around the country.

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It is an annual event organized by the Karnataka Chitrakala Parishath on the first Sunday of January every year and is all about art in the form of paintings. Canvas, glass, paper, fabric, wood, plastic, beer bottles- you name them and you can find beautiful paintings on them being sold at this fair with products strewn on both sides of an entire road. KumaraKrupa main road and it’s cross roads would be choc-o-block from dawn to dusk with art enthusiasts pouring in large numbers.

From very modern styles of mass-media art to traditional Madurai and Mysore royal paintings, artwork of school going kids to Octogenarians to handicapped artists, celebrity portraits, wildlife, architecture, conceptual paintings- art lovers will be spoilt for choices. Although the artistic skill cannot be gauged with a price tag, things range from 50Rs. to 1lakh Rs. Per painting depending on the material used and time spent.

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Wildlife paintings

This is not an event for the trippers who want to take a selfie and post on social media but a wonderful event for talented artists to get some genuine investors. A must go for the artist in you…

Finally, here is a life sized painting that I loved the most- An expecting mother playing with her unborn baby in the real world. Everything in the real world- the mother, the door and the toys have their shadow except the imaginary baby. The clarity in the artist’s thoughts about his subject has been represented with every detail in this picture looking so real.

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PS: Do not reproduce any images as there is a lot of effort that has gone into every piece of art. #Respect

Have you been to ChitraSanthe? What kind of art do you like? What other art festival have you been to? Do let me know what was your favourite part of the visit to this annual market of art in the comments below.

Madurai (Part 1)- The city of Pandyan architecture

An overnight bus journey took us to Madurai at 6.00.a.m.

Day 1:

We found a decent lodge to stay for the day-freshened up there and left for the main part of the trip- The Meenakshi temple- An abode of the Pandyan architecture. The entire temple complex is fortified by walls, with 4 entrance towers towards the 4 directions. The sculptures on each of these towers are out of the world. Once inside the complex- you start to wonder which world of wonder you have stepped into.. It took us about 3-4 hrs to finish a quick rounr, admiring the beauty of this place and also get blessed with the darshan of Meenakshi Amman and Lord Sundareshwaran. There are a lot of stalls inside the complex selling various handcrafted articles.

The finely decorated interiors of the Meenakshi Temple
The finely decorated interiors of the Meenakshi Temple
A portion of the temple near the lake
A portion of the temple near the lake

The temple art museum within the same premises is a must visit. The central sculpture of Natarajan, or the dancing firm of Shiva is believed to be one of the Pancha Sabhas of the lord. This place representing the Silver hall where Shiva is believed to have performed the ‘Sandhya Thandavam’ dance firm. Also, there are 1000 pillars- all decorated with intricate pieces of sculpture. The dim light used for each pillar adds up to the beauty of the place.

Inside the Temple art museum
Inside the Temple art museum

A small walk through the narrow lanes took us to the Thirumalai Nayyakar Mahal built in the 16th century. Fine architecture with elegant paintings on the roofs and vaults is neatly presented in a simple combination of off-white and velvet red colour combination. There is sound and lights show every evening conducted here. However, we could not make it.

The interiors of Thirumalai Naickar Mahal

The interiors of Thirumalai Naickar Mahal

We took a local bus to Vandiyur. This is where the annual event of the famed Teppotsavam / Float festival takes place to celebrate the birthday of King Thirumalai Nayak in January. This tank is supposedly the biggest of its kind in the state. With the float festival just 2 months away and monsoon season just passing by- this tank still remained dry. When enquired how the event is going to take place in a dry tank, we were told that the water will be fed in January from the Vaigai river through artificially laid underground channels. This is truly amazing how such a concept was laid way back in 16 century. But for a new-commer like me, the dried lake was an eye sore as it was used as a watering hole by many vandals.

Vandiyur Mariamman Teppakulam - the island temple
Vandiyur Mariamman Teppakulam – the island temple

Taking another bus from there to Periyar and a small walk from there through the stinking / dirty by-lanes, we reached the Koodal Alagar temple. A quick pooja and a walk around the temple was a nice boost up. The architecture here too, is similar to that of Meenakshi temple.

Inside the Koodal Alagar temple
Inside the Koodal Alagar temple

We had to rush to The Gandhi museum as it would close by 6.00.p.m. However, we could not make it on time. This was once called the Tamakkum palace of Rani Mangammal. Today, the museum supposedly houses 14 articles that were used by Gandhiji, along with his sacred ashes and blood stained dhotis. Gandhiji is said to have visited the city 5 times.

So, we then headed back towards our lodge that was located just infront of the temple’s west gate. But, on the way- we checked into Pudumandapam. This is a 1000yrs old shopping mall- supported by huge sculpture rich stone pillars. The stalls are occupied with tailors, handicrafts vendors, wholesale dealers of pooja related and general accessories. A good place for shopping traditional artifacts at Madurai.

Entrance of the Pudumandapam
Entrance of the Pudumandapam

Day 2:

We took a local bus from Periyar bus stand to travel 21kms to reach Alagar Kovil- the temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu- Meenakshi’s brother. The village is surrounded by an old fort wall, it gives a good view of the green hills around the temple. The architecture is similar to Koodal Alagar temple in the city.

The Alagar Murugan Kovil
The Alagar Murugan Kovil

A trek of 3kms uphill though green forests and monkey infested walkways lead us to the Murugan temple. It is one among the six abodes of Lord Murugan and hence important among the pilgrims. A walk of half a kilometer further uphill took us to Pazhamudhir Solai temple. A temple dedicated to Goddess Rakkaya exists close to a natural spring called Nuburagangai here, where devotees take a holy bath. But what seemed strange to me was that the place was probably the only temple I had ever been to, which charges an entry fee into the temple itself. This is where the famed Chittrai festival is observed during the month of April.

The stream at the Pazhamudhir Solai
The stream at the Pazhamudhir Solai

From there, we took the next bus back to Periyar, from where we had to take a bus further to Tiruppanakundram. This was a cave temple at the foothills of a rock hill. It is believed that Lord Murugan was wedded to Devyani, daughter of Indra at this place. Hence, this is also counted one among the 6 abodes of Lord Murugan. Up the hills, is the Dargah of Hazrat Sultan Sikandhar Badushah shaheed Radiyallah Ta’al anhu. Owing to time constraint and exhaustion, we thought of skipping the climb.

Entrance to the Tiruppanakundram Murugan temple
Entrance to the Tiruppanakundram Murugan temple

Other lesser known places we skipped due to time constraints were the Kazimar mosque and Goripalyam Dargah. At the centre of the city is the Kattabomman junction- This is where a part of the old Madurai fort exists. Today this is not more than a public library.

I don’t do this usually, but would make a special mention about the streets of Madurai. Every street in the city has a history behind it: This link to an article from “The Hindu” explains it all- Where moats made way for motorways

This was all about getting around the place for sight seeing with bits of history. But, there is much to say and do..
To be continued……. Part 2 (Click here the read further) 🙂